季大方,江西财经大学外国语学院教授。江西师大学士,西南师大文学硕士,上海外国语大学博士生。国家留学基金委资助英国南安普敦大学访问学者。主要研究方向为英美文学,MBA案例教学法和商务英语等。为江西省高校中MBA资深教师,长期担任MBA和其他研究生英语等课程教学工作,并担任本科生英美文学和多种各层次课程的教学,教学经验丰富。曾多年参与世行和亚行贷款建设工程项目翻译工作和人民银行工商银行等金融英语培训工作。现兼任BEC剑桥商务英语考试江西考点口试考官,核心期刊江西财经大学《当代财经》英文翻译等。主要著述有《英国文学赏析》《决策中的伦理》等十多本及《论角色塑造中的变化幅度》《苹果园中的原型场》《论国际项目投标的战略定位》等20余篇论文。
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女性及其文学

应该说,自从女性主义崛起,女性对自身,一直存在着这样的声音,就是对性别平等的追索上,更多的不是用倾向女性的角度作为立足,也即,不是以弱势的身位求得一席之地。

  从理论上说,女性的强调性别,当然未必仅仅在意于生理的差异,而往往是生理差异遮蔽下的社会角色。或许,男权强势的巨大惯性形成的裹挟,使得女性在争取平等的诉求上,难免有性别制胜的欲望,但这种表面张力似乎震荡的气层之下,大约正好埋伏着寻求男性群体呵护的底蕴,譬如对绅士风度的心理认同。

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Tags: 英美文学园地

分类:文学纵横 | 固定链接 | 评论: 0 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 2894

狄更斯的《远大前程》

谈论狄更斯是要冒一点风险的,因为太多戴有色眼镜的专家把自己一辈子关在象牙塔里研究他,像曹雪芹一样,死后的尸体仍然供那些当代的专家学者们享用几十乃至上百年。作为一名普通读者,我对他们的工作态度与方法深表敬意;但作为一名汉语言修饰工匠,我完全有理由对他们嗤之以鼻。介绍狄更斯的生平毫无意义,谁都能通过互连网找到他想知道的材料,从嗜好到生活悲剧,从饮食习惯到所谓的思想操守。但这些东西对解读狄更斯非但没有一丝帮助,反而有误入圣伯夫之流的关系论的危险。在我看来,唯有艺术,以及使艺术得以存在并绽放的理由,才是一本书,一部小说得以不朽的真正理由。所以,我们现在只要知道他是名伟大的开拓创新者就行了。

需要再次重复我以前的观点,结构从来都不是短篇小说讨论的重点,而判断一部长篇小说的优劣,我们必须从小说的结构入手。为什么?因为短篇的灵巧足以弥补结构上的先天不足,而存在于长篇小说里的结构并不像一座外观雄浑,镶着天蓝色钢化玻璃的建筑那样醒目,它是隐含着的,在于人与人之间的联系,事与事之间的联系,以及人与物之间的关系,不经意的回首一瞥,这些都是小说网络的秘密所在。只有当我们深入其中时,才能为其中的精妙和宏伟而发出赞叹。

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Tags: 英美文学园地

分类:文学纵横 | 固定链接 | 评论: 0 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 5348

当代美国女性主义思潮述评

当代美国女性主义思潮述评
张立平    
    什么是女性主义(feminism)【注释】此处译作“女性主义”而不用惯常的“女权主义”原因有二:其一,在英语里,该词既指女权理论,又指女权运动,实践与学院的理论研究不完全吻合,此文中主要涉及理论,故用“女性主义”而不用“女权主义”,以作区分;其二,“女权”一词容易给人一种错误印象,似乎这些权利是妇女的特权,其实它们不过是与男性同样的基本权利。【注尾】?按《布莱克韦尔政治思想百科词典》的说法,“‘女性主义’是关于一种复杂现象的一般性的一个词……它关心妇女的地位……现代女性主义的语言和目标出现于法国大革命和启蒙运动后,它追求妇女的权利、性别平等,并对‘妇女’一词重新定义”【注释】David Miller ed., The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Political Thought (London: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1987), p.151.【注尾】。据女性主义研究专家南希•F•科特的研究,“女性主义”一词大约是在1910年进入英语词汇的,“女性主义”的含义是妇女角色的“彻底的社会革命”,早期女性主义“有两个主导思想,即妇女作为人的解放和作为女人的解放,它的目标是消除妨碍妇女作为个人获得完全发展的一切障碍”【注释】Nancy F. Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1987), chapter 1.【注尾】。因此,简单地说,女性主义就是基于天赋人权而产生的、以男女平权或男女平等为核心的思想和理论。它指导了实践(女权运动),又在实践中得到检验、批判和发展,并最终成为世界性的政治社会文化思潮。美国的女性主义思潮有很多流派,本文旨在从思想来源及各派主要内容两个方面对美国的女性主义思潮作一番梳理及评述,以便读者更好地了解当代女性主义思潮的发展脉络及其对社会的影响。
    发轫于60年代中期的美国第二波女权运动是当代女性主义思潮的土壤。受当时的民权运动、青年运动、反战运动影响,这一运动声势浩大,波及全国,影响深远。80年代中后期以后,由于“平等权利修正案”的失败(1972年被国会通过,1983年未获得生效所要求的全部各州的2/3的州批准),女权运动似告终结,但草根性的或单一目的、分散的女权运动至今依然在继续。由女权运动产生出的认同政治仍然存在。

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Tags: 英美文学园地

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Shakespeare's Comedy vs. Tragedy

Certain parallels can be drawn between William Shakespeare's
plays, "A Midsummer Night's Dream", and "Romeo and Juliet". These
parallels concern themes and prototypical Shakespearian character
types. Both plays have a distinct pair of 憀overs', Hermia and

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Tags: 英美文学园地

分类:文学纵横 | 固定链接 | 评论: 2 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 4676

Metaphor and Simile

The use of metaphor and simile may be that one area that most separates struggling new poets from the published, or at least, "working" ones. The ability to transform the commonplace is the poet's greatest gift, and there are no more viable gifts for transforming than that of the metaphor and its cousin, the simile
Rather than just making a matter-of-fact statement, the metaphor or the simile gives us ways to make a statement even "more direct than direct," if that's possible-- in short, to make it something transcendent. It's like looking at one of Andrew Wyeth's paintings, where wind blowing through a lace curtain becomes a gulf of possibilities, yet is itself, just a window and curtain, and some air.
This effect is created not merely by describing an object in some detailed manner (such as using adjectives and adverbs or, in the above case, paint-strokes), but by juxtaposing objects and action in a way that the object might remind a person of another thing, another time, another idea, another emotion. The phrase "like looking at one of Andrew Wyeth's paintings" is itself, a simile. "More direct than direct" is a metaphor. So is "gulf of possibilities." What did these things, once stated, "mean" to you? The answer, at least the complete answer, might well rest with who YOU were. And that is the purpose of metaphor and simile--to broaden our outlook, to consider all the possibilities of each reader's own experience and, in so doing, gain some greater understanding of the depth of a love, the degree of a hate, the purity of a soul. Are we talking magic here? Yes, it's magic. Now, what exactly ARE simile and metaphor?
A simile is a comparison of two things, using a phrase that begins with "like" or "as."

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Tags: 英美文学园地

分类:文学纵横 | 固定链接 | 评论: 6 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 9671

Linguistics and Literary Theory

The revolution in modern linguistics consists in regarding language synchronically rather than diachronically. Classical philology undertakes to construct a historical evolution of a system of language, focusing on the study of linguistic change over a period of time (diachrony), whereas modern linguistics studies the system as a functioning totality, a signifying structure (synchrony). According to Ferdinand de Saussure, the pivotal distinction is between langue ("the whole set of linguistic habits which allow an individual to understand and to be understood") -- which Noam Chomsky calls competence ("what the speaker of a language knows implicitly") -- and parole (the individual speech act itself) -- which Chomsky calls performance (what the speaker does). The linguistic sign, Saussure contends, is composed of the union between a signifier (an acoustic image which differentiates the sign from all others) and a signified (a concept or meaning). Affirming the relation between signifier and signified to be arbitrary and conventional, Saussure deliberately ignores the referent, the extralinguistic object to which the sign may or may not point. For Saussure, language is a system of differences without any positive terms. It has a vertical axis -- the paradigmatic, associative, or metaphoric axis -- and a horizontal axis -- the syntagmatic, contiguous, or metonymic axis. The former concerns the relations between an individual word in a sentence and other, similar words that might be substituted for it; the latter concerns the possibilities of syntactic combinations of words so as to make a well-formed sentence. All of the oppositions that structural linguistics generates -- langue and parole, system and event, signifier and signified, code and message, metaphor and metonymy, paradigm and syntagm, selection and combination, substitution and context, similarity and contiguity -- are variations of the opposition between synchrony and diachrony. In each case, the first term is privileged.
The application of this linguistic model to the study of literature has been fruitful. Russian Formalism, semiotics, and structuralism analogically extend Saussure's terms into the analysis of literature. As Roland Barthes puts it, "Literature is simply a language, a system of signs. Its being [être] is not in its message, but in this 'system.' Similarly, it is not for criticism to reconstitute the message of a work, but only its system, exactly as the linguist does not decipher the meaning of a sentence, but establishes the formal structure which allows the meaning to be conveyed." Poststructuralism goes one step further, contending that if it is true, as structuralism maintains, that language is a system of differences without any positive terms, then the relational nature of signs produces a potentially infinite process of signification. Deconstruction, therefore, tries to demonstrate how structuralism's focus on the systematic undercuts itself and how its privileging of langue over parole can be upset or reversed, leaving a free play of signifiers and an elastic context that can be infinitely extended. By contrast, speech act theory privileges parole over langue, seeing meaning as a species of the genus intending-to-communicate, as something use-oriented and context-dependent. Rejecting the assumptions of theories based on the linguistic model. speech act criticism holds that the investigation of structure always presupposes something about meanings, language use, and extralinguistic functions.

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Tags: 英美文学园地

分类:文学纵横 | 固定链接 | 评论: 1 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 3605

Lord Byron's Life

George Gordon Byron led a highly controversial and wild, although relatively short life. From his womanizing to his worldwide travels, thankfully his activities were well documented, even in his own words through letters and journals. Many consider him to be "the most popular and controversial poet of his generation- indeed of the whole English Romantic Movement" (Rutherford 1). This credential is even more significant considering Byron grew up in a political climate of revolution and change. The American Revolution scarcely proceeded his day of birth in 1788, the French Revolution was taking place during his childhood, and the Industrial Revolution was developing throughout his life (Jump 1). Hence it's no suprise that, despite the orthodox manner often required by his status as an English aristocrat, many of his poems projected a hero who was, "the very embodiment of revolt" (Jump 1-2).

Byron was born into the English aristocracy in London on Jan. 22, 1788. He was the the son of Captain John and Augusta Byron, and the sixth in a line of Lords. His father passed away when he was only three and by age five young Byron was being sent to a day school. In 1798, at the age of ten, he moved to Newstead Abby with his mother, and at about that same time his club-foot began to go lame, a problem that would plague him throughout his life (Byron, Works of..., xvi).

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Tags: 英美文学园地

分类:文学纵横 | 固定链接 | 评论: 21 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 7280

Comedy and Tragedy in The Scarlet Letter

Even though Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter is not a drama, it contains elements of two of the main types of drama: comedy and tragedy. The components of drama can be seen in certain characters and situations in the novel. Today we are going to explore what comedy is and where it is located in The Scarlet Letter; in addition, we will investigate the meaning of drama and where it can be seen as functioning in Hawthorne’s novel. The elements we will focus on stem from the ending on the novel.
According to Dr. Jerz’s site, American Literature I, “comedy begins when an ordered society is thrown temporarily into disorder by an individual who does not conform.” This definition will be useful in recognizing comedic elements in the book.
Another definition of comedy, (complete with examples of where it is to be found), is offered by Gale-Free Resources Glossary of Literary Terms, comedy is, one of two major types of drama, the other being tragedy. Its aim is to amuse, and it typically ends happily. Comedy assumes many forms, such as farce and burlesque, and uses a variety of techniques, from parody to satire. In a restricted sense the term comedy refers only to dramatic presentations, but in general usage it is commonly applied to nondramatic works as well. Examples of comedies range from the plays of Aristophanes, Terrence, and Plautus, Dante Alighieri's The Divine Comedy, Francois Rabelais's Pantagruel and Gargantua, and some of Geoffrey Chaucer's tales and William Shakespeare's plays to Noel Coward's play Private Lives.
Dr. Jerz continues to say, “a comedy ends in order, as the disordered element is either expelled or absorbed into the background.” With this in mind, the reader must address elements of comedy in Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter. One of the comedic elements in The Scarlet Letter is the story’s ending. Hester leaves Boston for England and when she returns years later, her advice is sought from people, according to The Scarlet Letter, especially, “Women- …in the continually recurring trials of wounded, wasted, wronged, misplaced, or erring and sinful passion- or with the dreary burden of a heart unyielded, because unvalued and unsought- came to Hester’s cottage, demanding why they were so wretched, and what the remedy!” Through the novel, Hester was made a public figure of ridicule, (which gradually was tempered over the course of the years); her return to Boston illustrates the absorption of the disordered element.

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Tags: 英美文学园地

分类:文学纵横 | 固定链接 | 评论: 18 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 5488

解码英语专业四级和专业八级考试

英语专业学生的考试(TEM, Test for English Majors),它是由国家教育部下属的英语专业教学指导委员会组织实施,主要针对我国英语专业学生的考试,考试证书由教育部颁发,所以具有很高的权威性。

  由于其指向性几乎是只对英语专业的学生开放,只有少数非英语专业的学生能够在自己学校许可的情况下参加,专四和专八证书在目前各种英语水平测试中就显得更加神秘。在2004年公布的修订后的高校英语专业四级和八级考试大纲中,考试难度的增加,让专四和专八考试更显得高深莫测。
  本文的主要目的是对英语专业考试进行一个简单的介绍,并且试图对专四和专八本身的变化进行对比,同时还试图比较英语专业考试和大学英语考试,让大家对英语专业学生的考试有一个初步了解,从而揭开英语专业考试的神秘面纱。

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Tags: 各类考试真题与测试题 学习方法

分类:教与学 | 固定链接 | 评论: 0 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 2723

浅议知识分子的特点

浅议知识分子的特点
王铁群

知识分子是以观念和思想的生产为职业的人,是民族精神和社会文化的综合者、表述者、传播者、延续者。其职责和使命是追求真理,促进社会的进步。

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Tags: 杂评

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三大要诀应对四六级听力

在四六级考试的听力测试中,不少同学感觉到平时的听力训练所提高听力能力很难发挥出来,这主要是因为他们没有把握住做体要领。一般说来,在考试中要做到以下几点:
  先看后听:充分利用听力考试正式开始前2分钟的时间或者放directions的时间,将试题的选项浏览一遍,在浏览过程中,注意划出选项中重复次数在量词以上的名词、动词和形容词以及专用名词和数字,因为这些词一般会在录音中出现。通过这些词,也可以对题目录音的主要内容进行预测。除此之外, 通过对大量的真题的研究,我们发现,正确答案一般在语义相反或者相对或者结构相似的两个选项中,因此,通过浏览选项,我们可以对正确答案进行预测。除此之外,在小对话部分,如果四个选项中有且只有一个选项含有数字或者专用名词,这个选项一般不对。
  把握节奏:正式开始做题之后,要严格控制答题时间,根据自己听懂的内容,尽快确定并标出答案。倘若遇到难题,应当机立断,不要在该题上花太多的时间。尽量余下几秒再次浏览下一题的选择项。通过再次浏览,考生可以在听录音前对录音中的关键词进行再次的浏览,从而降低听音的难度。如果在做完上一题后余下的几秒钟内看不完下一题的选择项时,则应把注意力放在听上,而不要为了看而耽误了听录音的内容。毕竟这是在进行听力测试,如果听得清、记得准的话,自然可以选择出正确的答案。
  沉着应战:在整个听音过程中,要注意力高度集中。在听懂大意的基础上,识别某一选项在录音中的位置和主要内容。在此过程中,要耳眼并用,耳听录音信息,眼观选择项,边听边做简单记录。遇到不会答的难题,果断放弃,猜一个答案,然后集中精力做下一道题。要相信只要专心致志就一定能发挥出自己的实际水平。

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Tags: 学习方法 各类考试真题与测试题

分类:教与学 | 固定链接 | 评论: 0 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 2829

四级六级考试写作解题技巧

四、六级考试十二句作文法及超级作文模式
    大学英语四、六级考试写作的评分依据是:文章切题、条理清楚、语言准确和字数符合要求。所谓切题就是看你写的作文跑题不跑题。所谓条理是指每一段的议论的正反清楚,说明的几个方面清楚,描述的时间正确。语言准确要求作文的语法词汇使用正确,符合英语表达习惯。四、六级的作文的字数要求是四级不少于100字,六级不少于120字。针对四、六级考试的作文要求我们提出了十二句作文法,这里所说的十二句作文法不仅包括一般英文写作的方法而且包括我们在多年考试辅导和阅卷中所总结出来的一套行之有效的写作方法。它的具体内容有以下几点。
一、审题
    我们拿到作文后第一件要做的事就是审题。审题的作用在于使你的写作不跑题(如果跑题,条理和语言再好,也得不到及格分,甚至0分。)那么审题要审什么呢?

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Tags: 各类考试真题与测试题 学习方法

分类:教与学 | 固定链接 | 评论: 2 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 2914

四级作文模板

一. 对比选择型热点追踪      
Study Abroad or in China?

There is no consensus of opinions among people as to whether students should study abroad or not. Some people are of the view that the youths should go overseas for further study if possible, while others take an opposite stand, firmly believing that it is of no necessity for students to study in a foreign country.

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Tags: 学习方法

分类:教与学 | 固定链接 | 评论: 4 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 14652

六级改错:认识逻辑错误

一、 缺漏与赘述
  1. 熟悉冠词的用法。
  2. 介词也是经常被漏掉的词之一。
3. 如果句子中有两个主要动词,而它们之间并无连词连接,那么很可能其中的一个动词前缺了一个关系代词或连接代词。

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Tags: 学习方法

分类:教与学 | 固定链接 | 评论: 1 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 3164

常考题类型归纳

要掌握解题技巧,我们还有必要对常考题进行归纳分析。研究生人学考试大纲对阅读理解部分的要求如下:
1.掌握所读材料的主旨和大意;
2.了解用以阐述主旨的事实和有关细节;
3.根据上下文判断大纲附录之外的某些词汇和短语的意义;

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Tags: 学习方法

分类:教与学 | 固定链接 | 评论: 40 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 10070